How to manage diabetes and cancer treatment

Between 8% and 18% of cancer patients have diabetes, a chronic condition that impacts the
ability to regulate blood sugar levels. And, for many patients,
diabetes management takes a backseat to cancer treatment. But managing
your blood sugar levels can help your overall health.

We spoke with Erma Levy, a research dietitian at MD Anderson, about what cancer patients with
diabetes should know.

Can cancer treatment affect blood sugar levels?

Radiation therapy, steroids and some types of chemotherapy may impact your blood sugar levels.
And uncontrolled high blood sugar can lead to dehydration, which is a
frequent side effect of chemotherapy.  Taking extra care to manage
your blood sugar levels can help you stay hydrated and feel better
during treatment.

Uncontrolled blood sugar levels also can have a negative impact on
your other organs. Monitoring your blood sugar levels can help keep
them healthy and strong during cancer treatment. 

What can cancer patients with diabetes do to improve their health?

If you have Type II diabetes or pre-diabetes (a high risk for
developing diabetes), try to manage it through your diet. As your diet
allows, focus on a healthy eating plan that’s rich in fruits,
vegetables and whole grains and low in fat and calories. You can help
keep your blood sugar level in a safe range by ensuring there’s a
balance of these foods in your diet throughout the day.

If you’re finding that it’s difficult to eat healthy foods, talk to
your doctor or schedule an appointment with a dietitian to find ways
to get these foods into your diet. If you’re an MD Anderson patient, your doctor or nurse can
refer you to an MD Anderson dietitian.

If you have energy, exercise when possible. This can help you
maintain a healthy weight, which plays a key part in controlling your
diabetes. Studies have also shown that exercising during treatment can
ease side effects and improve quality of life for many patients.

If you’re an MD Anderson patient, be
sure to ask about our Internal Medicine Center’s diabetes program.
Inpatients can be referred by their nurse, dietitian or other member
of their health care team. Outpatients must be referred by an MD Anderson doctor.  

What should cancer survivors with diabetes do to lower their
risk of recurrence?

People with Type II diabetes are more likely to be diagnosed with
cancer than those without diabetes. Researchers aren’t sure if that’s
because abnormal insulin levels affect your cancer risk, or because of
the other health problems that often accompany diabetes, like obesity.
Both diabetes and cancer are related to obesity, inflammation and
increased blood sugar.

Fortunately, the same steps that you take to manage your diabetes
can also help lower your cancer risk and your risk for recurrence:

  • Maintain a healthy diet. Fill two-thirds of your
    plate with vegetables, fruits and whole grains. Limit the amount of
    red meat and processed foods you eat. Watch your portion sizes.
  • Exercise. Aim for 150 minutes of moderate physical
    activity or 75 minutes of vigorous exercise each week.
  • Limit your alcohol intake. Research shows that
    heavy drinking damages cells and can lead to cancer. Alcohol is also
    high in calories and sugar. The National Cancer Institute recommends
    that women have no more than one drink per day and men have no more
    than two drinks per day. (A drink serving is defined as 12 ounces of
    beer, five ounces of wine or 1.5 ounces of liquor.)

Remember, if you have diabetes, the best thing you can do is to make
sure your blood sugar levels are under control. That’s true before,
during and after cancer treatment.

Request an appointment at MD Anderson online or by
calling 1-877-632-6789.